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to: things-list

Answers to questions about particular objects

by William McGaughey

 

The list:

1. air : matter

2. alphabet being recited: thought -- Thought: Recitation of the alphabet is an activity of thought and so is listening to this.

3. book: matter, life, thought -- Life: The paper in a book is made of cellulose from a dead tree. Thought: The book is a manufactured product.

4. bowl: matter, thought -- Thought: The pottery is a manufactured product.

5. bread; matter, life, thought -- Life: Bread is made from wheat and yeast which are living organisms. Thought: The ingredients must be baked to produce a loaf. Slices are cut from the loaf.

6. brick: matter, thought -- Thought: The raw materials are shaped and baked.

7. chicken dinner: matter, life, thought -- Life: The chicken is a dead animal whose flesh is eaten. Thought: The chicken is butchered, cooked, and served on a plate.

8. cloud: matter

9. coal: matter, life -- Life: A lump of mined coal is a fossil of carbon that originated in the decayed remains of plants or algae from 300 to 400 million years ago.

10. coin (a quarter): matter, thought -- Thought: The coin is fabricated from metal.

11. comb (plastic): matter, life, thought -- Life: The plastic is derived from oil, the residue of dead vegetation from antiquity. Thought: The comb is a manufactured product.

12. corn on the cob: matter, life, thought -- Life: Corn (maize) is the seed of a living plant. Thought: Corn is a domesticated plant derived from a wild Mexican grass.

13. cow: matter, life, thought -- Life: The cow is a living animal. Thought: She is a domesticated animal, consciously bred to produce milk.

14. dandelion flower: matter, life -- Life: The picked dandelion is a dead plant that grows apart from human cultivation.

15. Declaration of Independence: matter, life, thought Life: The original document was made of parchment, derived from animal skin. Thought: The Declaration of Independence contained thoughtful text.

16. dog: matter, life, thought -- Life: The dog is a living animal. Thought: Dog are domesticated animals.

17. earthworm: matter, life -- Life: The earthworm is a live animal taken from the wild.

18. eye glasses: matter, thought Thought: The pair of eyeglasses is manufactured from plastic lenses and metal or plastic frames.

19. feather: matter, life -- Life: Feathers come from the body of birds.

20. fire produced by a cigarette lighter: matter, life, thought -- Life: Fire comes from oil in the lighter. Thought: The fire is produced by a manufactured product.

21. glass for drinking: matter, thought -- Thought: The glass container is made from silicon particles.

22. human being: matter, life -- Life: The human being is a live animal.

23. ice cube: matter, thought Thought: The cubes are manufactured from water placed in a freezer.

24. key: matter, thought -- Thought: The key to unlock a door is a manufactured product.

25. leaf: matter, life -- Life: A leaf provides nutrition for the plant in breaking down carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen into the air.

26. music when we sing a song: thought -- Thought: The patterns in music are perceived by thought.

27. pancake breakfast: matter, life, thought -- Life:The pancake comes from buckwheat flour. Likewise, butter and maple syrup come from living creatures. Thought: Human activity is required to put the ingredients together, cook them, and serve a meal.

28. paper clip: matter, thought -- Thought: The paper clip is manufactured from steel wire.

29. pear : matter, life, thought -- Life: The pear is a fruit grown on a tree. Thought: This tree is a domesticated plant.

30. pepper in a shaker: matter, life -- Life: The pepper comes from an Indonesian plant.

31. pine cone: matter, life -- Life: The cone is produced by a living tree.

32. postage stamp: matter, life, thought -- Life: The stamp contains paper and glue, both products of life. Thought: The stamp with printed image is manufactured and used for commercial purposes.

33. Pythagorean theorem: thought -- Thought: The famous theorem does not physically exist nor is it a living creature. However, one can know it through thought.

34. rock: matter

35. rope: matter, life, thought -- Life: Rope is usually made from a vegetable material. Thought: Rope is manufactured by weaving smaller strands together.

36. rubber band: matter, life, thought -- Life: Rubber is the product of a live tree. Thought: The rubber band is a manufactured product.

37. salt in a shaker: matter

38. sand from a beach: matter

39. scrambled eggs: matter, life, thought -- Life: Eggs are the reproductive cell of chickens. Milk comes from a cow. Thought: Human activity is required to put the ingredients together, cook them, and serve a meal.

40. shoes: matter, life, thought -- Life: The leather is the skin of a dead animal. Thought: Shoes are a manufactured product.

41. soap: matter, life, thought -- Life: The soap is made from the fat of a dead animal. Thought: Soap is a manufactured product.

42. squirrel: matter, life -- Life: The squirrel is a wild animal.

43. stick taken from the woods: matter, life -- Life: The stick is a piece of wood from a tree growing in the wild.

44. table: matter, life, thought -- Life: The table is made of wood that comes from dead trees. Thought: The table is a manufactured product.

45. tee shirt: matter, life, thought -- Life: The cotton fiber comes from a plant. Thought: Clothing is a manufactured product.

46. toothbrush: matter, thought -- Thought: The toothbrush is manufactured from bristle material and a plastic holder.

47. top soil: matter, life -- Life: Soil is composed of dead vegetation plus bits of rock.

48. umbrella: matter, thought -- Thought: An umbrella is made of metal, wood, and nylon fabric according to a mechanical design.

39. water: matter

40. wool sweater: matter, life, thought -- Life: The sweater is made of wool sheared from a live sheep. Thought: It is a manufactured product.

 

Note: No explanation for matter is required since all physical objects consist of matter.

 

The following are proposed answers to questions about the origin of certain "things".

 

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1. air: matter The thing: This is a limitless mass of invisible gases surrounding the earth.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? gases surrounding the earth

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Water vapor comprises 0.25% of the atmosphere by mass.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? It exists in nature although global warming is influenced by human production of greenhouse gases.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? inorganic

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Air envelopes the earth in differing degrees of density in various places above the earth’s surface. Because air is invisible, one may not be aware of its presence. Human beings breathe air to take oxygen into their bodies and exhale carbon dioxide. To be aware of air, exhale strongly against one’s hands. The exhaled air will exert pressure against the hand.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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2. alphabet: thought -- Thought: Recitation of the alphabet is an activity of thought and so is listening to this. The thing: This is what you hear when a child recites his or her “A,B,Cs”.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? n.a.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? n.a.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? n.a.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. n.a.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The alphabet is a system to translate elements of spoken language into visual symbols that represent the same words.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The script is not manufactured. However, it is taught and used for reading and writing. Over three thousand years ago, merchants in the middle east developed alphabetic scripts to improve written communication.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Alphabetic scripts replaced ideographic scripts starting in the 2nd and 1st millennia B.C. They first emerged in Palestine and the Sinai peninsula. A proto-Canaanite alphabet gave rise to the Phoenician and proto-Arabic alphabets around 1300 B.C. The Phoenician and Aramaic alphabets, spread by merchants, were the principal source of Indo-European writing. The Phoenician alphabet gave rise to the Greek and Latin alphabets; the Aramaean, to alphabets spread east through Persia to northern India. Modern European Romance languages are derived from Latin.

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3. book: matter, life, thought-- Life: The paper in a book is made of cellulose from a dead tree. Thought: The book is a manufactured product. The thing: You hold this in your hand, flip to a page, and start reading.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? mostly paper which is cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags, cotton, or grasses.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? The chemical composition of wood varies from species to species, but is approximately 50% carbon, 42% oxygen, 6% hydrogen, 1% nitrogen, and 1% other elements by weight. Celluose is an organic compound with the formula C6H10O5. It is a structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants. Cotton is also widely used to make paper.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Wood is harvested from trees in a forest and converted to a pulp that is used to make paper.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Wood pulp comes from softwood trees such as spruce, pine, fir, larch and hemlock, and hardwoods such as eucalyptus, aspen and birch.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the pine tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; Division: Pinophyta ; Class: Pinopsida ; Order: Pinales ; Family: Pinaceae ; Genus: Pinus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees, In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Longer trunks allowed the plant to compete more effectively for sun light in the forest.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? from a dead tree

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Trees usually grow in the wild. Trees are a land-based plant that developed during the Devonian epoch, 416 million to 359 million years ago. Cell walls became thicker to prevent moisture loss. Originally plants had an underground stem that put out shoots but did not penetrate the ground. The earliest vascular plants appeared in the Silurian period. Trees later developed roots and leaves.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The book’s function is to express, store, and transmit human thought. A book displays printed letters in its pages that represent words whose arrangement communicates thought

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. A book is a manufactured object. Several sheets of paper containing configurations of ink are stacked upon each other and bound at one end by glue. (Perfect bound). Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibers of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags, or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibers. This is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquid, so that it may be washed from the cellulose.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, possibly as early as the year 105 A.D. although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China. Printing began in China in the 3rd century A.D. This technology spread to India and Korea. Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany, introduced printing with movable type to Europe. He printed a Bible in 1454 AD. Gutenberg’s creditor, Johann Fust, received his printing equipment through a lawsuit and established the first European publishing company.

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4. bowl: matter, thought-- Thought: The pottery is a manufactured product. The thing: This is the ceramic object that holds cooked vegetables at the dinner table.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Clay, which is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Clays are plastic due to their water content and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Depending on the content of the soil, clay can appear in various colors, from white to dull gray or brown to a deep orange-red.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? The bowl is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? mostly inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? All phyllosilicate minerals are hydrated, with either water or hydroxyl groups attached. They are divided between the serpentine, clay mineral, and mica groups. Kaolinite, in the clay mineral group, has a formula of Al2Si2O5(OH)4

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Clay is found in moist places places on earth. It is easily extracted from the ground.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? A bowl is most often used to contain food for meals or meal preparation. Its glazed surface holds moist objects without leakage

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The moist, plastic clay is arranged in coils stacked upon each other to create the bowl’s walls. The coils are fused and shaped with water. The wet object becomes hard when fired in a kiln. The different types of clay and minerals create different kinds of pottery. A ceramic glaze is often produced during the firing. The glaze material is silica with oxides of metals such as sodium, potassium, and calcium.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Pottery shards have been discovered in Honshu, Japan, dated to around 14,000 B.C. All human cultures have used bowls and other pottery.

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5. bread: matter, life, thought -- Life: Bread is made from wheat and yeast which are living organisms. Thought: The ingredients must be baked to produce a loaf. Slices are cut from the loaf. The thing: This baked food has a crust and is sliced into edible pieces.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Bread is baked from a mixture of flour and water. Wheat is the most common grain for flour in western countries but maize and rye can also be used to make bread. Wheat consists of the germ (the reproductive cell), endosperm (starch to feed the embryo), and bran (the hard outer layer of the grain). Bread can be made in various ways depending on which parts of the grain are used

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? various

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Flour is produced by grinding kernels of grain. Flour, water, and a leavening agent such as yeast produce bread, when baked.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? wheat plant

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the wheat plant. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Moncots ; unranked: Commelinids ; Order: Poales ; Family: Poaceae ; Subfamily: Pooideae ; Tribe: Triticeae ; Genus: Triticum

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Wheat grain is a mechanism for reproduction. Each grain contains the seed of a new wheat plant, starch to nourish it, and a tough outer shell.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? The harvesting of wheat grain kills the plant.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Wheat is a domesticated species of plant. It was domesticated from wild grasses found in Turkey, Syria, and Jordan more than nine thousand years ago. Wild einkorn and emmer were the principal ancestors. Domesticated wheat had larger grain and a tougher rachis (stem to which the grains attach) than its wild predecessors.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Bread is a primary source of food for many people. It can be eaten alone or together with other food preparations such as sandwiches made of cheese, lettuce, and slices of meat.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Bread is made from dough consisting of flour and water with yeast added to leaven the dough. It is then baked in an oven. The bread is often sliced and packaged for sale.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Bread has been produced for tens of thousands of years. Agriculture allowed wheat to be grown conveniently and in abundance. Today, large-scale bakeries produce bread by highly mechanized procedures.

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6. brick: matter, thought -- Thought: The raw materials are shaped and baked. The thing: This is an artificial reddish rock produced by baking a clay-sand mixture.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? brick, a block of clay-bearing soil, sand, lime or concrete, baked to become hard

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Silica (sand) – 50% to 60% by weight; Alumina (clay) – 20% to 30% by weight; Lime – 2 to 5% by weight; Iron oxide – less than 7% by weight; Magnesia – less than 1% by weight

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The materials are obtained from the earth’s crust by quarrying or mining.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Brick is used as an external building material for buildings, walls, roads, and other structures.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. There are two types of bricks: fired and non-fired. The more primitive non-fired bricks are a clay material mixed with straw and left in the sun to harden. Fired bricks, which are stronger and longer lasting, are much the same materials put in a mold and baked. In the soft-mud method, raw clay mixed with sand is ground together and then mixed with water. This material is then put in steel molds to be shaped and then baked in a furnace at a 900 to 1,000 degree temperature Celsius to become hardened.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Mud-based bricks dating to 7,500 B.C. have been found in Turkey and Iraq and, somewhat more recently, in Egypt, Palestine, and Pakistan. Cities in the Indus Valley civilization were using ceramic, fired bricks around 3,000 B.C. The Chinese started using bricks around 2,000 B.C. The Great Wall of China, constructed largely during the Ming dynasty, is the world’s largest brick structure. Brick continues to be widely used as a construction material.

 

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7. chicken: matter, life, thought -- Life: The chicken is a dead animal whose flesh is eaten. Thought: The chicken is butchered, cooked, and served on a plate. The thing: This would be the piece of broiled chicken served on a plate.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? the body of a whole chicken

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Chicken-like animals exist in nature but most chickens are domesticated animals kept on farms.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. These animals are raised on chicken farms, often in pens.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? a chicken

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the chicken. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Aves; Order: Galliformes ; Family: Phasianideae ; Subfamily: Phasianinae ; Genus: Gallus; Species: Gallus gallus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The whole body is cooked as a meal.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Chickens are a domesticated animal descended from the red junglefowl. Originally chickens were bred for cock fighting. Later, attention turned to egg and meat production.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Baked chicken provides edible meat.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Whole chickens are easy to bake. A recipe is as follows: To cook a 4-pound whole chicken, first prepare 1 1/2 cups of (barbeque) sauce, put the chicken in a pan in the oven with legs up, pour the sauce over the chicken and inside, cover, cook for 8 to 10 hours at a low temperature. Typically, chickens will be slaughtered at 14 weeks of age.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The domesticated chicken might have originated in India. They appeared in the Indus Valley civilization of Pakistan and spread north to the Tarim basin of central Asia and west toward Europe. The Egyptians used chickens for cock Fighting around 1400 B.C. Polynesian peoples may have brought chicken to central and south America in pre-Columbian times.

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8. cloud: matter The thing: This is the white or grey cluster of condensing water that you see floating in the sky.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? water transitioning from a gas to liquid

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? in nature

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? H2O molecules

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Sun evaporates water which then rises in the air. When the air becomes saturated with moisture in becoming cooled to its dew point, the water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of liquid water or water crystals in a cloud.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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9. coal: matter, life -- Life: A lump of mined coal is a fossil of carbon that originated in the decayed remains of plants or algae from 300 to 400 million years ago. The thing: This is a rock-like lump that might be found on the floor near a coal furnace.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? coal, a sedimentary rock

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? It is mostly compressed carbon with traces of hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. through coal mining

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? various kinds of dead plant matter deposited millions of years ago

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? various kinds of ancient vegetation, including mosses, ericaceous shrubs, and sedges

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Coal was the compressed bodies of those organisms.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Those plants grew in the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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10. coin: (a quarter): matter, thought-- Thought: The coin is fabricated from metal. The thing: This is the small metallic engraved object in a purse that is used to buy something.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? A quarter consists of two layers of cupronickel (75% copper and 25% nickel) surrounding a core of pure copper. It used to be made of silver.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? The quarter coin consists of 8.33% nickel and 91.67% copper.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The two metals were obtained by mining.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? A coin is used as a medium of monetary exchange to buy and sell products.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Quarters and other U.S. coins are produced at U.S. mints at four facilities in the United States. They are manufactured by the following processes: 1. Blanking: Blanks are punched from coiled strips of metal about 13 inches by 1,500 feet in a blanking press. The leftover webbing is chopped up and recycled. The cent is the only coin stamped onto pre-made blanks. 2. annealing: The blanks are heated in an annealing furnace to soften them. Then they are run through a washer and dryer. 3. upsetting: Next, the good blanks go through an upsetting mill. This raises a rim around their edges. 4. Finally, the blanks go to the coining press. Here, they are stamped with the designs and inscriptions which make them genuine United States coins. 5. inspecting: Press operators using magnifying glasses spot-check each batch of newly struck coins. 6. counting and bagging: An automatic counting machine counts the coins and drops them into large bags. Fork lifts move the pallets of sealed bags to vaults for storage. Trucks take new coins to Federal Reserve Banks, then to local banks.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Coins were first minted in Turkey, Greece, India, and China in the 6th century B.C. They were later used in Persia and Rome. Originally coins were made of gold and silver. The weight-based value of the precious metal was stamped upon the coin, certifying the value. Later, coins were debased in value as inferior metals such as copper were substituted for precious metals. Quarters were originally made of silver but, starting in 1965, copper and nickel were used. It presently costs the government 11.14 cents to produce a quarter.

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11. comb: (plastic): matter, life, thought-- Life: The plastic is derived from oil, the residue of dead vegetation from antiquity. Thought: The comb is a manufactured product. The thing: This is an object with plastic teeth that is run through your hair to straighten it.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Plastic, probably celluloid. Most of today's plastics are made of hydrocarbon molecules—consisting mostly of carbon and hydrogen—derived from the refining of oil and natural gas.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before the monomers are linked together to form the polymer chain). The structure of these "side chains" influence the properties of the polymer.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Plastic, probably celluloid. Historically, the resins were derived from vegetable matter such as cotton and oak hulls. Now it is mostly petrochemicals. Most of today's plastics are made of hydrocarbon molecules—consisting mostly of carbon and hydrogen—derived from the refining of oil and natural gas. Most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone (usually they are "hung" as part of the monomers before the monomers are linked together to form the polymer chain). The structure of these "side chains" influence the properties of the polymer

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Petrochemicals are mostly the decayed and pressurized remains of various algae and zooplankton from hundreds of millions of years ago.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? Algae are single-celled prokaryotic organisms

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The decayed cell as a whole furnished the material.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? to comb hair - straighten it.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. injection molding. Liquid plastic material is forced into a cold mold where it hardens.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Celluloid, the type of plastic used for combs, was developed in 1869 by John Wesley Hyatt, as a substitute for ivory. The elephant population was threatened due to the demand for billiard balls. Welsey experimented with cotton, nitric acid, and various solvents and finally found a material that worked. The world's first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland who coined the term 'plastics'. In the 1930s, several new plastics were created by companies such as DuPont.

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12. corn: on the cob: matter, life, thought -- Life: Corn (maize) is the seed of a living plant. Thought: Corn is a domesticated plant derived from a wild Mexican grass. The thing: This is the yellow vegetable on the corn cob that you eat.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? maize (corn)

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? a C4 plant - uses carbon 4 fixation. It is a source of starch.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Corn is a crop cultivated on farms which is picked annually and eaten or processed.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? maize

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of maize (corn). Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Moncots ; unranked: Commelinids ; Order: Poales ; Family: Poaceae ; Subfamily: Panicoideae ; Tribe: Andropogoneae ; Genus: Zea; Species: Zea mays

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The kernels of corn are its seeds, used for reproduction.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? The plant is normally killed when the kernels are picked.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? It is a domesticated species. Maize is derived from the wild teosinte plant of Mexico. Maize has a single tall stalk with multiple leaves. Teosinte is a short bush. The Olmecs and Mayans cultivated maize in the Tehuacan valley of Mexico.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Corn on the cob is eaten as a dinner item. Maize is also converted into flour, ethanol fuel, and various other purposes.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Corn on the cob is not manufactured. It is picked in the field, cooked in water to become soft, and then buttered and salted for eating.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The Mayans and Olmecs of ancient Mexico domesticated maize from the native teosinte plant. The crop spread to north America around 2500 B.C. European explorers and adventurers carried corn to Europe in the early 15th century A.D. and from there it spread to the rest of the world. Today, corn is the most widely grown grain in the Americas. There were 332 million metric tons grown in the United States in a recent year. Much of the corn is fed to livestock or used in ethanol to reduce petroleum consumption.

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13. cow: matter, life, thought -- Life: The cow is a living animal. Thought: She is a domesticated animal, consciously bred to produce milk. The thing: This is an animal raised on farms to produce milk.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? a living animal

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The cow was raised on a farm.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? cattle (female)

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of cattle. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Subclass: Theria; Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Artiodactyyla ; Family: Bovideae ; Subfamily: Bovininae ; Genus: Bos; Species: Bos taurus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? This is the live animal.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? living

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Cattle are a domesticated species of animal. The wild auroch was their ancestor.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? This is a live animal. However, cattle are eaten or are a source of milk. Their skin provides leather.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Cattle originated in the middle east and in India. It is believed that the current species of cattle are descended from around 80 animals that lived in southeast Turkey around 10,500 years ago. Another breed originated in north Africa. Cattle were often used as symbols of wealth in preagricultural societies. Cattle are sacred in India. Today, ranchers let cattle graze on vast territories of grassland and then slaughter them for meat. Cows are milked on dairy farms.

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14. dandelion: flower: matter, life -- Life: The picked dandelion is a plant that grows apart from human cultivation. The thing: This is a small plant with a yellow flower that grows in yards, sometimes considered a weed.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The taraxacum (dandelion) plant

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The flower was picked from a lawn.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? dandelion plant

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the dandelion plant. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Asterids ; Order: Asterales ; Family: Asteraceae ; Tribe: Cichorieae ; Genus: Taraxacum; Species Taraxacum officinale

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Children pick them as flowers.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? living

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? It came from the wild. Although the dandelion is often considered a weed, it has several uses as a bouquet of flowers, a source of vitamins, an ingredient in wine or tea, and a medicine to treat liver and bile problems.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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15. Declaration of Independence : matter, life, thought-- Life: The original document was made of parchment, derived from animal skin. Thought: The Declaration of Independence contained thoughtful text. The thing: This is a document signed in 1776 by representatives of England’s American colonies declaring that the colonies considered themselves politically independent of Great Britain.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? parchment (rather than paper)

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Parchment is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Parchment is made from the skin of an animal such as cattle, sheep, or goats

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The animal whose skin is used is slaughtered. Its hide is removed. The pelt is dried at ordinary temperatures while being stretched on a frame.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? probably cattle

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of cattle. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Subclass: Theria; Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Artiodactyyla ; Family: Bovideae ; Subfamily: Bovininae ; Genus: Bos; Species: Bos taurus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The skin surrounds the soft tissue of an animal’s body to protect it from the elements.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? a dead animal

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Cattle are a domesticated animal.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? A document written upon parchment is meant to record information or a message. In this case, the Congressional Congress of the united states of America made a decision to secede from the British empire and drafted a document to that effect which was published and sent to the English king.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Thomas Jefferson drafted the text of this document at the instruction of the Continental Congress. The Congress amended the text, deleting a quarter of the text. The 56 delegates to the convention signed the document which was adopted on July 4, 1776. The original document was made of parchment. Parchment is skin removed from the animal. After being flayed, the pelt is left to soak in water for a day and is cleaned in a dehairing liquor but is not tanned. The American Declaration of Independence, written on parchment was “engrossed” by Thomas Matlack, an assistant to the secretary of the Continental Congress, which means that it was written in a large, clear hand. Later 200 copies of this document were printed by Philadelphia printer, John Dunlap. There were several public readings.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson and signed on July 4, 1776, was a manifesto declaring that certain English colonies in north America regarded themselves as independent of the British crown, King George III. This move toward political independence precipitated a war between England and its colonies. The Declaration also stated principles of democratic government and of human rights, especially in the sentence: “ We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” The colonists, led by George Washington, won the war against Great Britain. The Declaration of Independence became regarded as one of the founding document of the new nation, the United States of America, in expressing its political ideals.

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16. dog: matter, life, thought-- Life: The dog is alive. Thought: Dogs are domesticated animals. The thing: This is an animal kept in human households that barks and wags its tail.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? This is the body of a living animal.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Dogs exist in nature but are a domesticated breed of animal.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The dog was bred by a breeder and sold by a pet store.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Dogs are classified as Canis lupus familiaris.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of dogs. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Order: Carnivora ; Family: Canidae ; Genus: Canis; Species: Canis lupus; Subspecies: Canis lupus familiaris

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? This is a live animal.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? living

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? domesticated Domestication is a matter of selecting particular male and female animals for breeding. The animals are selected for possessing certain qualities that are desired in offspring.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Originally dogs helped man catch wild game. More recently, they have become house pets, bred and kept for companionship in human households.

(B) Describe its evolution. Human beings selectively bred wolves who had strayed into their communities. The domestic dog diverged from the grey-wolf species around 15,000 years ago. Since then, a variety of different breeds have emerged. The Yorkshire Terrier is a small dog breed of terrier type, developed in the 19th century in the county of Yorkshire, England, to catch rats in clothing mills.

(C) Give a history of this thing. In the mid-19th century, workers from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small terriers. Breeding of the Yorkshire Terrier was "principally accomplished by the people—mostly operatives in cotton and woolen mills—in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire." The breed sprang from three different dogs, a male named Old Crab and a female named Kitty, and another female whose name is not known.

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17. earthworm: matter, life -- Life: The earthworm is a live animal taken from the wild. The thing: This is a small pale animal without legs that burrows through the earth and is sometimes used as bait for fishing.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? the flesh of a living animal

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The burrowing animal was plucked from a pile of dirt.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? an earthworm

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of earthworms. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Annelida ; Class: Oligochaeta; Subclass: Haplotaxida; Order: Megadrilacea ; Suborder: Lumbricina, Moniligastrida Family: more than a dozen different ones

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a. This is a living animal.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? living

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? It came from the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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18. eye glasses: matter, thought -- Thought: The pair of eyeglasses is manufactured from plastic lenses and metal or plastic frames. The thing: This is a metal device with embedded glass that is worn over the eyes to correct distorted vision.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The lenses, wire frames, and other components of eye glasses are made of different materials. Lenses are often made of crown glass or plastic. Where glass was once used exclusively, over 80 percent of eye glasses are now made of plastic. Wire frames are made of metal such as stainless steel. Plastic can also be used for frames.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic unless plastic is used for the lens

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Crown glass is produced from alkali-lime (RCH) silicates containing approximately 10% potassium oxide.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The silica and other substances in the lenses were mined as were the substances in the metal frames.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Eye glasses are usually worn to correct vision when a person’s cornea is out of focus. The glass shape in the lens distorts light in an opposite way to provide sharp focus. The convex lens corrects farsightedness; and the concave lens, nearsightedness. Others types correct astigmatism.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Lens blanks made of plastic are produced in optical factories. A technician matches the lenses to eyeglass frames, centering them with a lensometer. The customer receives an eye examination to determine the proper description. The optical technician puts this information into a computer which tells how to process the lens. During the blocking process,a heated lead alloy fuses the block to the front of the blank. The blank then goes into a grinding machine that grinds the right curves into the back of each lens. The lens is then polished with a pad made of soft sandpaper. The lens is then beveled to make it fit the frame. Then, the eyeglass lenses are dipped into a container that gives them the desired treatment or tint. Finally, the lenses are inserted into the frames whose rims have tiny screws to open or close them.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Although the refractive possibilities of quartz or glass have been known since antiquity, the first modern eyeglasses were made in Italy around 1286 A.D. A Dominican friar, Alessandro della Spina of Pisa, was first to produce them for other people. Some claim, however, that eye glasses were first used in India. At any rate, the technology spread. Glasses were used throughout Europe and the Americas. Benjamin Franklin invented the bifocal. Over time, a variety of devices have been developed to hold the lenses. Most involved pieces of metal or plastic that exert pressure on the nose and wrap behind the ears. Plastic lenses have largely replaced ones made of glass because they are harder to break and easier to fabricate.

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19. feather: matter, life -- Life: Feathers come from the body of birds. The thing: This is a thin, air tight object that surrounds a bird’s body and comprises the webbed material in its wings.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? keratin proteins composed of hydrogen-bonded protein strands that make beta-pleated sheets

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Feathers are normally attached to the body of birds but some feathers come loose and may be picked up from the ground.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? any of several species of birds

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of a pigeon (bird). Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Clade: Dinosauria; Class: Aves; Order: Columbiformes ; Family: Columbidae ; Subfamilies: seven varieties

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The feather insulates a bird’s body from water and cold temperatures. Its woven structure in wings aids flight. The color patterns of feathers attract mates.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? probably a living bird

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Most birds are species that have evolved naturally in the wild. Birds are the last surviving relatives of the dinosaur. Certain species of dinosaurs had feathers, notably Archaeopteryx and Microraptor.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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20. fire: produced by a cigarette lighter: matter, life, thought-- Life: Fire comes from oil in the lighter. Thought: The fire is produced by a manufactured product. The thing: This is the hot, bright flame from burning material in the cigarette lighter.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Fire is the rapid oxidation of combustible material producing heat, light, and other products.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? both. A fire may be set by lightning or by a person using matches or a cigarette lighter to start a flame. In this case, we are assuming that the fire was started by a cigarette lighter.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? The visible flames consist mainly of carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen, and nitrogen gases. The object being burned supplies the material.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Fire is found in many places on earth. It is started by various means including rubbing sticks together, striking a match, or using a mechanical lighter. The cigarette lighter was manufactured. The object being burned was a commercial product. The fire itself was started by a thumb moving quickly down against the lighter so that metal strikes flint producing a spark to ignite fuel from the container.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? lighter fluid

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? various

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? butane

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The fire from a lighter starts a fire in the end of a cigarette so the user can smoke it.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. A fuel such as butane is placed in a plastic container with a small opening next to a stone and spark wheel that provide the ignition. The fire itself is made by simple human activity when a thumb moves quickly to produce a spark.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Flintlock pistols using gunpowder were the initial inspiration for lighters. In 1823, a German chemist produced a device called Dobereiner’s lamp in which a platinum metal piece ignited hydrogen gas. Carl Auer von Welsbach's flint, patented in 1903, made modern lighter possible. The popular Zippo lighter was invented in 1932. It used naphtha as a fuel source. Today most cigarette lighters are made in China, the United States, and Thailand.

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21. glass: for drinking: matter, thought -- Thought: The glass container is made from silicon particles. The thing: This is a hollow glass object that can hold liquid without leaking.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Glass is made from sand whose main ingredient is silica (SiO2)

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? While lightning striking sand can produce glass, most glass is manufactured by melting the ingredients in a furnace and then producing shaped objects.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Silica, the main ingredient, is often mixed with sodium oxide (NaO2), calcium oxide (CaO), and other additives to lower the melting point and make it easier to produce shaped objects.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Sand is found on beaches and other places around the world or this and other ingredients are mined.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The glass container, commonly called a “glass”, is used to hold water or other liquids for drinking purposes.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Pure silica (SiO2) has a high melting point so other ingredients are added such as sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium oxide (NaO2), calcium oxide (CaO), magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3). This makes soda-lime glass which accounts for 90% of manufactured glass. After the ingredients have been prepared and mixed, they are usually melted in gas-fired furnaces and then made into containers by blowing and pressing methods. The glass is first blown through a valve in the baffle, forcing it down into a three-piece ring mould. Compressed air is blown through the glass, which results in hollow and partly formed container. Compressed air is then blown through the blowhead at the second stage to force the glass out so it expands into the mould to make the container’s final shape. Some containers then undergo a treatment to improve the chemical resistance of the inside.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Natural glass such as obsidian, used to make sharp cutting tools, was widely traded in ancient times. Glass was first manufactured in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and northern Syria. Glass beads have been found dating to the third millennium B.C. The Romans made extensive use of glass objects as did Europeans in the middle ages. Medieval cathedrals are noted for their stained-glass windows. In the 20th century, urban skyscrapers typically have rows of glass windows on each floor.

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22. human being: matter, life -- Life: The human being is a live animal. The thing: This is someone like yourself.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? the body of a primate animal

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. This person was invited to attend class.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Homo sapiens, a primate animal

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the human species. (Homo sapiens). Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Order: Primates ; Suborder: Haplorhini Family: Hominidae ; Genus: Homo; Species: Homo Sapiens

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a. This is a live animal.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? live

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild Human beings are seldom consciously bred to produce certain qualities although their existence in civilized societies has had an impact upon the species’ evolution.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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23. ice cube: matter, thought -- Thought: The cubes are manufactured from water placed in a freezer. The thing: This is ice made in trays placed in the freezing compartment of refrigerators.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? water

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? The frozen cube is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? H2O

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Tap water comes out of a faucet that leads through pipes to a municipal water and sewage system which has purified the water from natural sources.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Ice cubes can be placed inside a glass to cool the drink.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Trays made of silicone plastic or metal receive the water from the tap. They trays are place in the freezing compartment of refrigerators. After several hours, the water freezes solid into ice cubes which can be removed individually for use in drinks by twisting or banging the trays.

(C) Give a history of this thing. John Gorrie, an American physician, built a refrigerator in 1846 for the purpose of cooling air in rooms. A byproduct was icicles that hung from the ceiling of the room. Lloyd Groff Copeman invented the rubber ice cube tray in 1928. Five years later, Guy L. Tinkham invented the first flexible stainless steel, all-metal ice cube tray. Some refigerators have automatic ice cube makers in the freezing compartment.

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24. key: matter, thought -- Thought: The key to unlock a door is a manufactured product. The thing: This is a small metal object with unique teeth that fits in a lock to open or lock a door.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? a metal such as steel or brass

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Steel is made of iron plus carbon and alloys. Brass is a metal alloy combining coper and zinc.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Iron, copper, and zinc are all mined. Brass is produced by heating copper and zinc together and letting zinc vapor react with the copper. Copper ore must be smelted - its liquid heated in the presence of silica - and then roasted to remove the sulfides. Zinc oxide must also be smelted with organic materials. Iron is extracted from iron ore by removing oxygen. Steel is produced by adding carbon and other materials such as nickel or manganese to iron.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Keys are used in combination with locks to secure or open doors. A person twists the key in the lock to move a striker in or out of position to allow the door to open. If the configuration of metal in the cuts lines up with that in the tumbler lock, then the key is allows to twist to a new position which moves the striker in or out. Otherwise, the striker will not move. Each key has a unique set of cuts.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Once a key exists, it can be copied on to a piece of flat metal by the following process: The key to be duplicated is placed in one vise and the blank key to be cut in a corresponding vise under the cutting disk. The vise carriage is then into such position by means of a lateral-feed clutch that the shoulders of both the pattern and blank keys just touch the guide disk and cutter respectively. The lateral-feed clutch on the top of the machine is then thrown, and the vertical feed rod released into action and power applied through the combination hand-crank power wheel on the right of the machine, until the cutter has passed over the entire length at the blank.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Locks and keys have been found in the ruins of Assyria and ancient Egypt. The Romans had locked boxes to store valuables. The coat of arms of the Vatican shows a set of keys that were given to St. Peter to symbolize his authority to grant entrance of Heaven. Tumbler locks were invented by Robert Barron in 1778 and improved in 1818 by Jeremiah Chubb. The modern pin tumbler lock was invented by Linus Yale in 1848. These are the basic mechanisms in use today. Keys are used primarily to open or close doors to a building or to start automobiles.

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25. leaf: matter, life -- Life: A leaf provides nutrition for the plant in breaking down carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen into the air. The thing: This is a flat and (usually) green processor of sunlight that grows on the end of tree branches.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? vegetable tissue

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Deciduous trees such as the maple tree shed their leaves in the autumn so that the leaves can be picked up from the ground. Otherwise, it would be necessary to pluck the leaf from its branch.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? a maple or other deciduous tree.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the maple tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Sapindales ; Family: Asteraceae or Sapindaceae; Subfamily: Hippocastanoideae ; Genus: Acer; Species: 128 varieties

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The function of a leaf is to use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere into carbon nutrients for the plant and release free oxygen. This is done through the process of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts in the leaf’s cell help transform the gases. Stomata, or tiny openings in the leaf, regulate the exchange of gases.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? The leaf probably comes from a living tree.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Trees exist largely in the wild unless cultivated for certain purposes.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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26. music: when we sing a song: thought -- Thought: The patterns in music are perceived by thought. The thing: This is what you hear in certain rhythmic vibrations when someone sings or plays musical instruments.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? n.a.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? n.a.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? n.a.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. n.a.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufacturedor it exists as pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Music gives people pleasure and excitement as they listen to it. Its rhythmic patterns please the mind.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. A composer imagines the sounds to be created and transcribes them in written notes. A musician sings music in the form of a song or else plays the notes with a musical instrument to produce the sounds.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Music has been a part of human culture since prehistoric times. Often it is accompanied by words. The Christian church sponsored musical production in medieval times. Print technology helped to spread its works. Orchestral works progressed from the Baroque era to the classical pieces of Mozart, Beethoven, and other noted composers in in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the 20th century, recorded music played on the radio dominated the culture. However, the “thing” suggested here is a simple song sung by a person.

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27. pancake with maple syrup: breakfast: matter, life, thought -- Life: The pancake comes from buckwheat flour. Likewise, butter and maple syrup come from living creatures. Thought: Human activity is required to put the ingredients together, cook them, and serve a meal. The thing: This is the soft circular food on the plate when you are served breakfast.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? (1) the pancake: The pancakes themselves are made mostly from wheat flour which is baked. nine small pancakes require the following ingredients: 1 egg + 3⁄4 cup milk + 2 tablespoons butter or 2 tablespoons margarine, melted + 1cup flour + 1 tablespoon sugar + 1 teaspoon baking powder + 1⁄2 teaspoon salt (2) maple syrup: This is the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees which store starch during the winters and release sugar in the spring.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Both are manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Wheat contains protein, starch, and fat. Maple syrup is a sugar.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. (1) The wheat grain, harvested on a farm, is ground into powder from which the pancake flour is made. The cook adds other ingredients to the pancake flour in a milk-based batter. (2) The syrup consists of sap from the maple tree boiled to condense it.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? wheat plant, maple tree

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the wheat plant. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Moncots ; unranked: Commelinids ; Order: Poales ; Family: Poaceae ; Subfamily: Pooideae ; Tribe: Triticeae ; Genus: Triticum This is the taxonomy of the maple tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Sapindales ; Family: Asteraceae or Sapindaceae; Subfamily: Hippocastanoideae ; Genus: Acer; Species 128 varieties

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? (1) The wheat grain is the seed from which a new plant grows. (2) The syrup provided nutrition to the maple tree during the winter months.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? Wheat plant is destroyed when its grains are harvested. Maple syrup comes from a living tree.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? (1) Wheat is the product of selective planting of seeds from wild grasses such as emmer and einkorn in the middle east starting around 10,000 years ago. Grains that had larger seeds which remained more firmly attached to the ear were preferred because of their superior food content and greater ease of harvesting. Improved seed production has continued into modern times. (2) Maple trees are angiosperm plants that originated in Asia.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? This is a breakfast food, tasty and nutritious. The sugary maple syrup adds to the taste.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. (1) Pancakes are made by producing a liquid batter consisting of flour mixed with milk and pouring the batter into a frying pan where it cooks and solidifies. After a certain cooking time, the pancakes are removed from the skillet and served on plates. The diner puts small slabs of butter on the pancakes and pours maple syrup from bottles on top to make the dish more tasty. Specific directions: 1. Beat egg until fluffy. 2. Add milk and melted margarine. 3. Add dry ingredients and mix well. 4. Heat a heavy griddle or fry pan which is greased with a little butter on a paper towel. 5. The pan is hot enough when a drop of water breaks into several smaller balls which 'dance' around the pan. 6. Pour a small amount of batter (approx 1/4 cup) into pan and tip to spread out or spread with spoon. 7. When bubbles appear on surface and begin to break, turn over and cook the other side. (2) Most maple syrup comes from syrup production farms where maple trees are tapped so the sap can be collected in buckets. Then the sap is boiled to achieve the desired degree of concentration.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Pancakes go back to prehistoric times. The ancient Greeks made them from wheat flour, olive oil, honey, and curdled milk. Scottish people made pancakes from oatmeal. Another type was called Johnnycake, a cornmeal flat bread. Prospectors in the American west brought sourdough to make them on the trail. Shrove Tuesday - or Mardi Gras - is known in the United Kingdom as “Pancake Day” to honor a food eaten at the beginning of Lent. A “pancake race” is held on this day when the runners toss pancakes in frying pans.

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28. paper clip: matter, thought -- Thought: The paper clip is manufactured from steel wire. The thing: This is a small piece of metallic wire bent in a multiple U-shape to hold papers together.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? steel wire

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? iron plus additives

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Steel is made of iron plus alloys. The Bessemer process efficiently creates steel by oxidizing molten pig iron to remove the impurities. Iron is reprocessed to reduce the carbon to a desirable level and then add other elements.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Paper clips are normally used to hold stacks of related paper sheets together. Informally, they have been used to eject cards from computers or pick locks.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Paper clips are made from iron wire, cut and bent in certain ways.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Patented in 1867, the paper clip was first used to attach tickets to fabrics. It was later used to fasten newspapers.The Gem Manufacturing Company in Britain was the first major manufacturer of paper clips, starting in the late 19th century. Some paper clips are now made of plastic.

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29. pear: matter, life, thought -- Life: The pear is a fruit grown on a tree. Thought: This tree is a domesticated plant. The thing: This is is a yellow or green fruit that is picked from a pear tree.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? This is the fruit of a pear tree.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Pear trees are a cultivated plant derived from wild trees and shrubs.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? an organic material. 100 grams yield the following materials: 9.75 grams of sugars, 3.1 grams of dietary fiber; .36 grams of protein, various vitamins and minerals, especially potassium.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The pear is a fruit picked from the branches of a pear tree.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Pear trees and shrubs are a species of plant. There are 128 different species.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the pear tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Rosales ; Family: Rosaceae ; Subfamily: Amygdaloideae ; Tribe: Maleae ; Subtribe: Malinae, Genus: Pyrus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The fruit contains the seed of the tree surrounded by fruity materials that are eaten by animals who spread the seed to other places through their droppings..

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? from a living tree

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? The tree was domesticated. Pears originated in western China in the foothills of the Tian Shan mountain range and have evolved into more than 20 species. The European pear is derived from two wild subspecies, Pyrus communis pyraster and Pyrus. communis caucasica, which are part of the vegetation of European forests.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The pear fruit is a food eaten for pleasure and nutrition.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Pears are usually eaten after being picked from the trees although some varieties must be cooked.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The pear tree is native to temperate coastal areas of the Old World including Europe, north Africa, and southern Asia. Evidence of pears dates back to the Swiss lake dwellings of neolithic times. This fruit has been cultivated in China for at least 3,000 years. The Romans also ate or cooked pears.

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30. pepper: in a shaker matter, life, thought -- Life: The pepper comes from an Indonesian plant. Thought: The peppercorn must be produced from the fruit. The thing: This is black, hot-tasting seeds used to add seasoning to food.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? black pepper

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured It is processed from natural fruit.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Black pepper comes from the unripe drupes (fruit surrounding a shell with the seed inside) of a pepper plant which is a flowering vine cultivated for its fruit. The drupes are cooked in hot water, cleaned, and dried in the sun. This makes the pepper shrink around the seed and become a “peppercorn”.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? pepper plant which is a vine

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of black pepper. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: fruits ; unranked: Magnolids ; Order: Piperales ; Family: Piperaceae; Genus: Piper; Species: Piper nigrum

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The fruit helps to distribute the seed inside.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? live plant

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Pepper grains are a seasoner for food, giving it a hotter, more pungent taste.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Black pepper comes from the unripe drupes (fruit surrounding a shell with the seed inside) of a pepper plant which is a flowering vine cultivated for its fruit. The drupes are cooked in hot water, cleaned, and dried in the sun. This makes the pepper shrink around the seed and become a “peppercorn”. The peppercorns are traded.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Pepper plants are native to India and the Indonesian islands. Peoples of this region traded pepper along the Indian ocean and the Arabian sea. Pepper was well known in the Roman empire. In medieval times, Europeans obtained pepper from India and the far east. The so-called “spice trade” taken over from the Arabs by Portuguese and Dutch traders. Columbus discovered America in seeking an alternative route to the far east.

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31. pine cone: matter, life -- Life: The cone is produced by a living tree. The thing: This is a ragged, brown, wooden object that falls from pine trees containing its seeds.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? a woody material produced by the pine tree that has flammable resins

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? a natural composite of cellulose fibers with the formula (C6H10O5)n

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Pine cones often drop off the tree onto the ground where a person can pick them up.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Pinus coulteri (a pine tree)

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the conifer pine tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Sermatophyta ; Division: Pinophyta ; Class: Pinopsida ; Order: Pinales ; Family: Pinaceae; Species: several

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The more familiar pine cone is the female cone containing the seeds. (The male cone produces pollen to fertilize the seeds.) The woody scales, arranged in a conical shape, are an outer cover that open or close to protect the seed depending upon wet or dry conditions. Seeds disperse over a wider territory in dry conditions.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? living tree

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? It came from the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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32. postage stamp: matter, life, thought -- Life: stamp contains paper and glue, both products of life. Thought: The stamp with printed image is manufactured and used to pay for mail delivery. The thing: This is a gummed piece of paper stuck to a letter to indicate that postage has been paid in the required amount.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? paper, ink, and glue

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? mostly organic materials.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Paper is mostly cellulose fibers with fillers such as calcium carbonate or titanium dioxide.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Stamps are usually printed on custom-made paper that is obtained from certain vendors and has certain characteristics so that the postal administration can control its production and use.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? a tree

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the conifer pine tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Sermatophyta ; Division: Pinophyta ; Class: Pinopsida ; Order: Pinales ; Family: Pinaceae; Species: several

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Wood provides structure for the plant enabling it to grow high.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead tree

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? The tree grew in the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The postage stamp, purchased by the sender of letters or other materials through a national postal service, is a convenient means of obtaining revenue for the delivery of mail and establishing that payment has been made in the required amount. Because artistic designs are displayed on the stamp, many collectors buy stamps without using them to mail letters.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. To make the paper for postage stamps, one prepares the pulp into a suspension of fibers, forms the paper on a mould or endless wire mesh, and finally finishes the paper’s surface and dries it. The Fourdrinier machine draws the furnish (the pulpy material) out of a vat onto an endless wire mesh where is is pressed with a Dandy roll. The paper is printed, perforated, and cut.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Postage stamps were first used in Great Britain in the 1840s. The first adhesive stamp was the “Penny black” issued in 1840. Previously, mail in the United Kingdom was paid for by the recipient who sometimes refused to pay. Senders often took advantage of someone else paying. The postage stamp solved this problem and also produced a new item of beauty in its design. In 1680, William Dockwra, a London merchant, and his partner developed a mail system that sent mail and small items inside the city of London. This did not involve a gummed piece of paper but hand stamps to confirm payment. Another Englishman, Sir Rowland Hill, made recommendations in 1837 that led to the national postal service.

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33. Pythagorean theorem: thought-- Thought: The famous theorem does not physically exist nor is it a living creature. However, one can know it through thought. The thing: This is a geometrical formula that calculates the length of sides in a triangle, first discovered by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? n.a.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? n.a.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? n.a.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? n.a.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. n.a.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? This is a fundamental truth of geometric relationships that can be used deductively to establish new relationships. The best-known example is that the hypotenuse of a right triangle 3 inches long on one side and 4 inches long on the other would be 5 inches long. The square of 3 (9) plus the square of 4 (16) equals the square of 5 (25). Other combinations are also possible.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The relationships were discovered in nature rather than being manufactured.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The Pythagorean theorem’s discovery is attributed to the Greek philosopher Pythagoras who lived in southern Italy until his death in 495 B.C. He founded a religious community that specialized in investigating mathematics and cosmology. However, the ancient Babylonians, Indians, and Chinese may have discovered this theorem well before Pythagoras. The Pythagorean theorem underlies certain equations in theoretical physics.

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34. rock: matter -- The thing: This is a piece of a hard silicate material formed in the earth’s crust.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Rock is a solid aggregate of minerals found in the earth’s crust.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature. Rocks are either igneous (solidified magma from volcanos), sedimentary (compressed residue of shells, sand, or other substances), or metamorphic (previous rock that has been transformed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions. Igneous rock makes up 74.3 percent of the earth’s crust by volume; metamorphic rock, 27.4 percent; and sedimentary rock, 7.9 percent. Rock was formed as the earth cooled and its crust was subsequently changed.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic materials

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Most rocks contain silica (SiO2) which comprises 74.3 percent of the earth’s crust. Granite, the most common rock, is a combination of quartz (SiO4) feldspar ((KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8), and biotite minerals (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(F,OH)2.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Someone picked this rock off the ground while walking through a park. Rock can also be mined or taken from a beach where erosion by waves have given it a rounded shape.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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35. rope: matter, life, thought -- Life: Rope is usually made from a vegetable material. Thought: Rope is manufactured by weaving smaller strands together. The thing: This is a long, flexible piece of woven thread-like materials often used to pull or lift heavy objects that are attached to it.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Natural fibers commonly used in rope include manila hemp, hemp, linen, cotton, coir, jute, straw, and sisal. Synthetic fibers include polypropylene, nylon, polyesters. Rope can also be made from steel wire.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? usually organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? It depends upon which material is used. Hemp rope, for instance, is made from the marijuana plant. Manila hemp is a type of plant grown in the Philippines related to the banana tree.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The substances is harvested as an agricultural product.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? various

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? various

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The fiber is used for structural support and to transport water and nutrients inside the plant.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Rope is a long, flexible material used for pulling and lifting heavy objects. Specifically, it has been used to moor boats at docks and hoist sails. It is also used by mountain climbers as a safety device.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The yarn (smaller strings of fiber) are twisted or braided together to make a thicker and stronger material with greater tensile strength. Twisted rope usually consists of three strands given a right-hand twist. First the fibers are gathered and spun into yarn. A number of these yarns are then twisted to create strands. Finally, the strands are twisted to lay the rope. The twisting takes a different direction at each stage so that the final rope holds together as a stable, unified object. Machines such as the Metters Rope Making Machine produce the final product.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Archeological evidence shows that Europeans produced string and rope 28,000 years ago. Egyptian rope was made of water-reed fibers. The Egyptians had specialized tools to make rope used, for example, to haul heavy stones. Around 2800 B.C., the Chinese started using rope from hemp. Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of a rope-making machine

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36. rubber band: matter, life, thought -- Life: Rubber is the product of a live tree. Thought: The rubber band is a manufactured product. The thing: This is a small, circular piece of elastic rubber used to hold small objects together.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? natural rubber

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Rubber is a polymer of isoprene, an organic compound with the formula CH2=C(CH3)CH=CH2.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Rubber is the latex of the rubber tree. Latex is an emulsion of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium. To obtain the rubber, one taps into the bark layers of the rubber tree and the substance oozes out into buckets. When it is exposed to air, this substance begins to harden and become rubber.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Para rubber tree

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the rubber tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angiosperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Malpighiales ; Family: Euphorbiaceae; Subfamily: Crotonoideae ; Tribe: Micrandreae , Genus: Hevea; Species: Hevea brasiliensis

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Latex serves the tree mainly as defense against herbivorous insects.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? live tree

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? in the wild The Para rubber tree is native to south America although Malaysia is now the leading producer of rubber.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The elastic rubber bands hold small objects together.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Rubber is extruded into long tubes to provide the shape and is cured with heat. Then the rubber is sliced into little bands across the width of the tube.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Central American peoples have used rubber since 1600 B.C. A Frenchman brought samples of rubber to Europe in 1751 where it generated great interest. In 1876, an Englishman smuggled 70,000 Para rubber tree seeds to England from where this plant was introduced to English colonies in southern and southeastern Asia. Stephen Perry patented the rubber band in England on March 17, 1845.

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37. salt: in a shaker matter -- The thing: This is a hard white mineral whose grains are used to season food.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? salt

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature although commercial salt is often purified to remove additives or add iodine.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? sodium chloride (NaCl)

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Salt often comes from salt mines which are natural deposits of salt. Salt can also be obtained by boiling salt water such as that in the ocean.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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38. sand: from a beach matter -- The thing: Sand consists of numerous grains of silica rock often found on the shore of oceans or lakes.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? sand. Sand consists of small particles of rock and minerals between 0.0625 millimeters and 2.0 millimeters in size.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic materials.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? various. The most common type consists of quartz which is silica or silicon dioxide (SiO2). However, sand can also consist of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from shells left by dead shell fish and coral. Arkose sand is rich in feldspar. (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8)

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Sand is found in the beaches of oceans and lakes where waves have pounded the rock into small particles. It is also found in deserts such as the Sahara. Sand is usually obtained from mining in an open pit.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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39. scrambled eggs: matter, life, thought -- Life: Eggs are the reproductive cell of chickens. Milk comes from a cow. Thought: Human activity is required to put the ingredients together, cook them, and serve a meal. The thing: This is a breakfast food consisting mostly of eggs mixed with milk and other ingredients which is stirred together and cooked.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Eggs from chickens are the chief ingredient of scrambled eggs. Four eggs plus one quarter cup of milk plus two teaspoons of butter yields two servings of this dish.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured Scrambled eggs are prepared by cooks.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Eggs are mainly comprised of protein and choline. Proteins are large molecules of amino acids which are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) along with side chains. The main elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Choline is a water-soluble ammonium salt. (NH4)

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Chickens lay eggs for reproductive purposes. Farmers collect the eggs and sell them to wholesalers or stores which sell them to the person who prepares the scrambled eggs. Milk is collected from cows on a farm.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? 1. a chicken (egg) 2. a cow (milk)

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the chicken. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Aves; Order: Galliformes ; Family: Phasianideae ; Subfamily: Phasianinae ; Genus: Gallus; Species: Gallus gallus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The egg is the reproductive cell of a chicken. 2. Milk is mammalian food to nourish newly born members of the species.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? from living animals

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Chickens are a domesticated species bred to increase egg production Wild hens lay 12 eggs a year. Domesticated hens can lay 300 to 350 eggs a year. Chickens are derived from the red junglefowl. They were first domesticated around 10,000 years ago in China. European chickens probably came from India. Cows, also domesticated, are descended from the wild auroch in Turkey and in India.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Scrambled eggs are usually eaten for breakfast.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Place the skillet of cooked eggs over a pan of hot water. Lightly whisk the eggs, cream and a pinch of salt together until all the ingredients are just combined and the mixture has one consistency. Heat a small non-stick frying pan for a minute or so, then add the butter and let it melt. Pour in the egg mixture and let it sit, without stirring, for 20 seconds. Stir with a wooden spoon, lifting and folding it over from the bottom of the pan. Let it sit for another 10 seconds then stir and fold again. Repeat until the eggs are softly set and slightly runny in places, then remove from the heat and leave for a few seconds to finish cooking. Give a final stir and serve the velvety scramble without delay.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The Romans ate scrambled eggs. So did Europeans and Americans throughout the ages. Eleanor Roosevelt had her own recipe for scrambled eggs which she often served to guests in the White House, especially on Sundays.

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40. shoes: matter, life, thought -- Life: The leather is the skin of a dead animal. Thought: Shoes are a manufactured product. The thing: This is a pair of leather garments that surrounds and protects the two feet.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Traditionally it is made of leather (cattle skin) but wood and canvas have also been used. Synthetic materials such as plastic and rubber have been increasingly used.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? The shoes are manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? various organic molecules

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Leather is obtained by slaughtering cattle or other animals; wood, by felling trees; canvas, by weaving cotton, linen, or hemp, etc.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? If made of leather, it comes from cattle.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of cattle. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Subclass: Theria; Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Artiodactyyla ; Family: Bovideae ; Subfamily: Bovininae ; Genus: Bos; Species: Bos taurus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Leather is the toughened skin of cattle.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead creature

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Cattle are domesticated animals.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Shoes are worn around the feet to protect them from injury due to sharp objects on the ground or hot ground. They are also a fashion accessory.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The modern shoe is stitched together in factories including these components: a outsole (in contact with the ground), an insole (a piece directly beneath the foot), a mid sole (between the outsole and insole), a heel (back of the shoe, underneath the heel), an upper piece (wrapping around the top of the foot), a tongue (seals the laced opening), a vamp (the front part of the shoe), a toe box (protecting the toes), etc. The various pieces are sewn or stitched together with specialized equipment.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The earliest known shoes date back to 8,000 B.C. They were simply pieces of bear hide or deer hide tied over the feet with a leather cord. The Indians of north America wore moccasins made of leather or bison hide. Thong sandals, made of papyrus and palm leaves, were popular in Egypt. The ancient Greeks generally disdained the use of shoes. Warriors in the armies of Alexander the Great fought barefoot. However, the Romans embraced shoes as a necessity for civilized people. Roman slaves went barefoot. In the middle ages, shoe production was a cottage industry. Starting in the 19th century, this industry became mechanized. A factory was established to manufacture shoes for British soldiers in the Napoleonic wars. The sewing machine, introduced in 1846, improved shoe production. Lyman Blake, an American, perfected a stitching machine in 1864 which was widely used in New England shoe factories. Many modern shoes are made of rubber and plastics that are not biodegradable. Most dress shoes are still made of leather. China now accounts for 63 percent of the world’s shoe production.

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41. soap: matter, life, thought -- Life: The soap is made from the fat of a dead animal. Thought: Soap is a manufactured product. The thing: This is a soft bar-shaped material that is used for cleaning.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? a fatty acid found in lard and other animal or plant products treated with an alkaline solution Soap is a salt of this acid.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? Soap is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides which are three molecules of fatty acids (a carboxylic acid) attach to a single molecule of glycerol (a compound of hydrogen and oxygen).

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The fatty acids are combined with a strongly alkaline substance such as lye to separate its components and produce soap.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? The main substance can come from the fat in butchered pigs and other animals or from vegetable oil

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of cattle. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Subclass: Theria; Infraclass: Eutheria Order: Artiodactyyla ; Family: Bovideae ; Subfamily: Bovininae ; Genus: Bos; Species: Bos taurus

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The fat was stored energy in the animal’s body.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? mainly domesticated species

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? to clean hands, clothing, and other objects, but also to lubricate. Soap molecules combine with previously insoluble materials in water to allow them to be washed away.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Triglycerides consist of three molecules of fatty acids attached to a single molecule of glycerol. Fats and oils composed of triglycerides are mixed with an alkaline solution to produce a chemical reaction that hydrolyzes the acids and produces soap. The glycerol remains.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Soap was used in Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 3rd millennium B.C. The Romans used soap from tallow and acids to clean the human body and hair.

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42. squirrel: matter, life-- Life: The squirrel is a wild animal. The thing: This is a small animal with a big tail and sharp claws and teeth that climbs trees.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The squirrel is a live animal.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? Squirrels consist of organic materials.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Mostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, building blocks of life.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. A rodent can be trapped but mostly it exists freely in nature.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Squirrels are a rodent.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of squirrels. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Order: Rodentia ; Suborder: Sciuromorpha Family: Sciuridae ; Subfamily: various

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? This is a live animal rather than an extracted material.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? live

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Squirrels are wild animals. Present-day squirrels evolved from a protosquirrel species of rodent in the Eocene epoch 56 to 34 million years ago, similar to the present-day mountain beaver and dormouse. It probably originated in north America.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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43. stick: taken from the woods: matter, life -- Life: The stick is a piece of wood from a tree growing in the wild. The thing: This is a piece of a tree branch that fell to the ground.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? wood from a tree

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Wood is a composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin. Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. A stick usually is part of a dead branch that has fallen off a tree. A person picks it off the ground.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? a tree of many possible species

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the oak tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Fagales ; Genus: Quercus; Species: dozens of possibilities

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? A tree branch provides structural support for a cluster of twigs and leaves. Leaves convert carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen, providing nutrients for the plant. The tree’s trunk and branches allow water and nutrients to be transported between the leaves and roots.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? It is dead material dropped from a living tree.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Trees usually grow in the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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44. table: matter, life, thought -- Life: The table is made of wood that comes from dead trees. Thought: The table is a manufactured product. The thing: This is a kind of wooden furniture with a large flat surface often used for dining.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The flat surface of a table usually consists of wood harvested in forests and cut in planks. Tables are crafted by carpenters who attach legs to the wooden planks.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula (C6H10O5)n The chemical composition of wood consists of the following elements: 50% carbon, 42% oxygen, 6% hydrogen, 1% nitrogen, and 1% other elements. In addition to water, wood contains cellulose (41-43%), hemicellulose (20-30%), and lignin (23-27%)

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Wood is cut from the trunk of trees.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? from various species of trees

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the oak tree. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Fagales ; Genus: Quercus; Species: dozens

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Wood is the dead interior of a tree that gave it structure and strength to grow to a certain height, competing with other plants for sunlight. Sunlight contributes nutrients to the tree through photosynthesis.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? Trees die when they are cut down to extract the wood.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Trees generally grow in the wild although selection of seeds can affect the species.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Tables are often used as a flat surface to set dishes for eating meals, as a desk to support writing activities, or as a place to put household objects for easy reach.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Assemble the wood, wood glue, tenons, and table legs. Clean the wood. Sand it down. Cut square corners. Join the table together by cutting mortises in the pieces and gluing them together with tenons in place. Sand the wood surface and attach the legs. (Can be metal or wood) Apply a resin finish to the table.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The ancient Egyptians used stone platforms to keep objects off the floor. The Chinese built tables for writing and painting. The Greeks and Romans used tables more frequently, mostly for eating. Tables were made of marble, metal, or wood. European nobility in the Middle Ages had large rectangular or circular tables for feasts or banquets.

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45. tee shirt: matter, life, thought -- Life: The cotton fiber comes from a plant. Thought: Clothing is a manufactured product. The thing: This is a shirt-like cotton garment covering the torso sometimes worn next to the skin.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? cotton cloth

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? manufactured

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Cotton is nearly pure cellulose.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The cotton bolls from the farm or plantation were ginned and spun into a yarn or thread. The thread is woven into cotton cloth. The cloth is cut and sewn to make a tee shirt. A dyed design may be added.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? cotton plant

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of the cotton plant. Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angioperms ; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids ; Order: Malvales ; Family: Malvaceae; Subfamily: Malvoideae; Tribe: Gossypieae; Genus: Gossypium

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The cotton boll surrounds the seeds from which new plants grow. The cotton bolls help to disperse the seeds.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? from a live plant

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Although it is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions, the cotton plant has been bred selectively and has been genetically modified to make it more resistant to pests. Most wild species of cotton are found in Mexico.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Tee shirts are inexpensive shirts worn in moderate or hot temperatures. Their printed design can be an accessory for expressing identity or affiliation. Tee shirts can also be worn as undershirts.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Tee shirts, named after the T shape of the body and sleeves, is made of cotton fibers knitted in a jersey stitch. A majority of modern tee shirts have a body made from a continuously woven tube, on a circular loom, so that the torso has no side seams. The manufacture of T-shirts has become highly automated.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Cotton garments were worn in antiquity in the Indus Valley civilization of India, pharaonic Egypt, and Mexico. In the 19th century, the southern states of the United States became a leading producer of cotton especially after Eli Whitney’s cotton gin made it easier to process the fiber. The tee shirt evolved from under garments worn in the 19th century by cutting the one-piece “union suit” into two pieces. Miners and stevedores wore them in hot environments. They became a popular garment for U.S. sailors during the Spanish-American war and, after that, for laborers in various industries and for boys. By the 1930s, tee shirts were commonly worn by farm workers. World War II veterans wore tee shirts as casual clothing. When Marlon Brando wore one in A Streetcar Named Desire, tee shirts became fashionable, stand-alone garments. Tee shirts also became imprinted with commercial designs displaying Disney and other entertainment characters.

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46. tooth brush: matter, thought -- Thought: The toothbrush is manufactured from bristle material and a plastic holder. The thing: This is a plastic piece with white bristles sticking out that you use to clean your teeth.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The bristles are usually made of nylon, a synthetic material developed by Dupont in the 1930s. The toothbrush handles are molded from thermoplastic materials which are polymers having large molecules. The bristles used to come from pigs.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? organic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Plastic polymers are usually made of carbon and hydrogen. There are various kinds of nylon, all comprised of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Synthetic materials are usually made from crude oil or, in some cases, from biomass.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? Crude oil comes from the decayed mass of algae and other ancient creatures.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? unknown

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? The material comes from the whole organism after it died.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? from the wild

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The tooth brush is used to clean teeth and gums to prevent tooth decay.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The bristles are attached to a handle. The first tooth brushes had animal hairs or bristles that were inserted into holes drilled into bones. The modern tooth brush is produced by machines that use synthetic materials.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The chew stick (a twig used like a tooth pick) was the first device to clean teeth. It was used in ancient Egypt and Babylonia. Chinese during the Tang dynasty developed a bristle tooth brush in which hog bristles were inserted into bamboo sticks or bones. European merchants learned of this device and introduced the Chinese tooth brush to Europe as an imported item. William Addis, an Englishman who had been jailed for causing a riot, had the idea while in jail of putting bristle into holes drilled in a bone. After his release, he became wealthy by making and selling this product. By 1840, tooth brushes were being mass-produced in England, France, Germany,and Japan. Mass production started in 1885 in the United States. Tooth brushing did not catch on in that country until after World War II when American soldiers were required to clean their teeth.

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47. top soil: matter, life -- Life: Soil is composed of dead vegetation plus bits of rock. The thing: Commonly called “dirt”, this is a mixture of rock and decayed vegetation that covers the ground.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? Minerals (45%), Organic matter (5%), Water (25%), Air (25% void space) With respect to minerals, soils are usually divided between sand, silt, and clay. An ideal balance would have a roughly equal sand:silt:clay ratio. Organic matter comes from products of soil microbes which promote the decay of dead plants and animals. One of these organic materials is known as humus, which mimics the adsorptive properties of clay minerals.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature although gardeners often purchase bags or loads of top soil to improve the growing of plants.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? both

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Top soil is a mixture of loose rock particles and decayed organic matter found in the top two inches or so of the ground. Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 grams per cubic meter.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Top soil can often be scooped off the ground.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? various

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? various

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Top soil is not the product of a single organism but an accumulated of decayed material from many different sources.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? dead

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? It exists in the wild.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? n.a.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. n.a.

(C) Give a history of this thing. n.a.

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48. umbrella: matter, thought -- Thought: An umbrella is made of metal, wood, and nylon fabric according to a mechanical design. The thing: This is a mechanical device that opens to place a circular sheet above a person’s head to block rain or sunlight.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? The canopy is usually made of a synthetic fabric such as nylon. The shaft is made of wood or plastic. The ribs and stretchers are made of steel.

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It is manufactured.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? The synthetic materials are organic; the steel, inorganic.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? The chemical composition depends on which part of the umbrella we are considering.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The synthetic materials are often produced from petrochemicals.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured or it is pure thought):

(A) What is the thing’s use? An umbrella is used mainly to shield its carrier from rain. Formerly it was used mostly by women to shield them against sunlight that would darken or damage the skin.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The shaft is first prepared from a piece of wood or a tube of steel, aluminum or fiberglass. The ribs and stretchers are assembled from U shaped or channeled steel. The ribs go underneath the canopy; the stretchers connect the ribs with the shaft via a round plastic piece that moves up and down the shaft. The ribs and stretchers are connected to each other with a joiner, a small metal hinge changes angles which as the umbrella opens or closes. The canopy is hand sewn to the ribs, shaped to fit a curve. The handle is connected to the shaft with glue or screws.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Collapsable umbrellas were first used during the Han dynasty in China to cover the emperor while riding in a carriage. In the west, it usually shielded the bearer from the sun. A sun umbrella was a fashionable device for wealthy Roman women. Two English gentlemen, Jonas Hanway and John MacDonald endured ridicule to popularize umbrellas in the 18th century. In the early 1850s, Samuel Fox began making umbrellas using U-shaped steel rods instead of canes or pieces of whale bone. The umbrella came to be considered an accessory for upper-class men who used it to protect themselves from rain.

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49. water: matter, thought -- Thought: Although water appears naturally on earth, it must usually be purified for drinking purposes. The thing: This is a clear liquid essential to life that is often drunk from a glass.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? pure liquid water

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? It exists in nature in gaseous, liquid, or solid form although drinking water in urban areas is produced through sanitation systems. Rain is the primary deliverer of pure water.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? inorganic

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Water is a molecule consisting of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen: H2O.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. Water is found in oceans, lakes, glaciers, and rivers around the earth. Often it can be taken directly from the source through pipes or wells. However, ocean water is too salty to drink. Because harmful microbes may lurk in natural bodies of water, only rain water, well water, boiled water, or water taken from glaciers, lakes or rivers away from human habitation would be safe.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? n.a.

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? n.a.

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? n.a.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? n.a.

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? n.a.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? Water is a universal drink. It is also used for bathing, cleansing, dissolving substances, transportation, industrial cooling, and other purposes.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. Water appears naturally on earth but urban sewage systems purify water, separating drinking water from fecal waste and other contaminants often found in natural bodies of water. Waste water is collected in sewers. The untreated water runs into sewage treatment facilities where it is run through filters, aerated, and treated chemically or biologically to clean the water so it is fit for drinking.

(C) Give a history of this thing. The history of water is synonymous with the history of life itself.

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50. wool sweater: matter, life, thought -- Life: The sweater is made of wool sheared from a live sheep. Thought: It is a manufactured product. The thing: This is an outer garment made of woven wool cloth often worn to keep the body warm.

Matter:

(A) What is this thing made of? wool, often from sheep

(B) Does the thing exist in nature or is it manufactured? The sweater is manufactured from the natural wool of sheep.

(C) Does its main substance consist of inorganic or organic materials? The sweater is manufactured from the natural wool of sheep.

(D) If inorganic, what is its chemical composition? Wool is a protein fiber collecting from fur of sheep. This protein fiber consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements.

(E) Tell how the substance was obtained. The wool is cut or sheared from live sheep.

Life (if the thing consists of organic materials):

(A) Which plant or animal does this material come from? from sheep

(B) Where is this species in the tree of life? This is the taxonomy of sheep. Kingdom: Animalia ; Phylum: Chordata ; Class: Mammalia; Order: Artiodactyla; Family: Bovidae ; Subfamily: Caprinae; Genus: Ovis; Species: Ovis aries

(C) What was the function of the extracted material in the living organism? Wool provides thermal insulation. Wool kept the sheep’s body warm.

(D) Did it come from a living or dead creature? live animal

(E) Was the creature a domesticated species or did it come from the wild? Sheep are domesticated animals bred for their wool and meat production. They have evolved from wild mouflon animals of Asia and Europe.

Thought ( if the thing was manufactured):

(A) What is the thing’s use? The purpose of a sweater is to keep the upper torso warm in cold weather. It is also worn as a fashion accessory.

(B) Describe its manufacturing process. The wool is woven into wool fabric and then cut and sewn to make a sweater. The process begins with shearing the sheep, grading, sorting, and cleaning the wool, spinning the wool fiber to create yarn, weaving the yarn into cloth, and then finishing the cloth. The sweaters are made in textiles factories.

(C) Give a history of this thing. Wool is the hair of sheep. Archeological evidence shows that around 6000 B.C. hairy wild sheep were bred in Iran to become more wooly. In contrast with hair, wool is crimped, elastic, and arranged in clusters. Wool-bearing sheep were introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the early part of the 4th millennium B.C. England became a major producer of wool in the middle ages. Lately, Australia has become the world’s leading wool producer. Merino sheep imported from England multiplied into today’s herds. New Zealand and China are the second and third largest producers of wool. The industrial revolution was focused upon the production of textiles. Today woven garments are produced mostly in China, Sri Lanka, and underdeveloped Asian nations.

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Note: There is an explanation for each “thing” if it incorporates life or thought. No explanation for matter is required since all physical objects consist of matter. There is also a statement describing the thing itself.

 

This is not intended to be an authoritative set of answers to questions about these "things" but a preliminary attempt to fill in the template. People are encouraged to disagree - to find better or more complete answers - and bring their own knowledge and points of view to the discussion. The purpose is to learn, not coerce belief.

 

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